Cybele Baptistry

Written by Stadt Neuss on


During emergency excavations in Neuss during 1956, a stone cellar from the late-antique period was discovered. At the time, the building was thought to be a “Fossa Sanguinis”, a blood baptistery consecrated to the cult of Cybele.

During the Taurobolium (a bull sacrifice ritual), a priest of the Great Mother goddess Cybele from Asia Minor descended into a pit, which was covered with a perforated wooden board. A bull was then slaughtered above him, and the blood of the animal streamed down onto the priest promising him rebirth and eternal life.

From today’s point of view this interpretation is questionable, as none of the Roman Cybele sanctuaries found to date have such a baptistery. Yet it is highly likely that the cellar had a sacral function even if its actual purpose is still unknown. One possibility is that it was Christian or a part of a Pagan temple, for instance for the Rhenish Mother Goddess Sunuxal.

The cellar is built from reused Roman bricks which probably came from a nearby sanctuary. The walls contain an altar for the highest Roman God, bearing the wording Lovis Optimus Maximus (best and greatest Jupiter). What is unusual about the place are the opposing staircases and a small brick bench in the cellar which is only 1.80m wide. There is nothing of this kind known from Roman cellars.

The irregular masonry gives rise to the assumption that the installation could only have been built after 300 A.D., after the Franconian invasions had led to a rapid economic and technical decline in the Lower Rhineland. Coins which were found here give evidence to the fact that the cellar was out of use after 341 A.D. Today, the cellar remains unique and without any direct parallels so far.



Clemens Sels Museum

Am Obertor

41460 Neuss , NRW


Phone: +49 2131 904 141

Fax: +49 2131 902 472

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The cellar is on Gepaplatz in Neuss.


The “Cult Cellar” is in the pavilion “Fossa Sanguinis” on Gepaplatz in Neuss.

Viewing is possible between 10 a.m. and 6 p.m. seven days a week.

The key is available at family Heischkamp, Gepaplatz 3 but it is advisable to inform of a visit.

Phone: +49 2131 120 669
Phone: +49 2131 101 203
Fax: +49 2131 120 669

Archaeological guided tours can also be arranged with the Clemens-Sels-Museum.

Phone: +49 2131 904 141