Germany has more than enough regulations. And apparently German law also states that anyone is allowed to use the toilets or restrooms in any pub. Most are free but every now and again, patrons come across cleaning personnel who will expect a small tip.
While shopping malls and department stores have good, fairly easy to find WC (water closet) facilities, Dusseldorf offers its public many hygienic installations. Many old washrooms (Öffentliche Toiletten), public urinals, pissoirs or bathrooms have been overhauled and modernised.
In addition, many advertising billboards double up as toilets. Of course, since these are commercially operated, those who wish to “spend a penny” will have to pay a number of cents. While some might “pooh-pooh” them, they are self cleaning and normally spotless.